Vocal emotion recognition, a key determinant to analyzing a speaker’s emotional state, is known to be impaired following cerebellar dysfunctions. Nevertheless, its possible functional integration in the large-scale brain network subtending emotional prosody recognition has yet to be explored. We administered an emotional prosody recognition task to patients with right versus left-hemispheric cerebellar lesions and a group of matched controls. We explored the lesional correlates of vocal emotion recognition in patients through a network-based analysis, by combining a neuropsychological approach for lesion mapping with normative brain connectome data. Results revealed impaired recognition among patients for neutral or negative prosody, with poorer sadness recognition performances by patients with right cerebellar lesion. Network-based lesion-symptom mapping revealed that sadness recognition performances were linked to a network connecting the cerebellum with left frontal, temporal and parietal cortices. Moreover, when focusing solely on a subgroup of patients with right cerebellar damage, sadness recognition performances were associated with a more restricted network connecting the cerebellum to the left parietal lobe. As the left hemisphere is known to be crucial for the processing of short segmental information, these results suggest that a corticocerebellar network operates on a fine temporal scale during vocal emotion decoding.